The history and cause of the bubonic plague

In rare cases, plague can cause meningitis, an inflammation of membranes that surround your spinal cord and brain. If you live in an area where the plague is known to occur, the CDC recommends not allowing pets that roam freely outside to sleep in your bed.

More recently, the World Health Organization reported an outbreak of plague in Madagascar in November and again from August through October 30,with a total of 1, confirmed, probable, and suspected cases of plague, including deaths according to Madagascar health officials.

Procopius, in his work Secret History, declared that Justinian was a demon of an emperor who either created the plague himself or was being punished for his sinfulness.

Archaeologist Barney Sloane has argued that there is insufficient evidence of the extinction of a large number of rats in the archaeological record of the medieval waterfront in London and that the plague spread too quickly to support the thesis that the Y.

Bubonic plague

By autumnthe plague reached Alexandria in Egypt, through the port's trade with Constantinopleand ports on the Black Sea. Between andthirty-seven larger and smaller epidemics were recorded in Constantinopleand an additional thirty-one between and In —, the disease reached Antioch.

With no treatment, bubonic plague can multiply in the bloodstream causing septicemic plague or in the lungs causing pneumonic plague. Some warfare strategies have included catapulting corpses over city walls, dropping infected fleas from airplanes, and aerosolizing the bacteria during the Cold War Stenseth, As infected rodents infected new rodents, the disease spread across the region, entering also from southern Russia.

Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut.

Additional symptoms include extreme fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, lenticulae black dots scattered throughout the bodydelirium, and coma. Shrewsbury inwho noted that the reported rates of mortality in rural areas during the 14th-century pandemic were inconsistent with the modern bubonic plague, leading him to conclude that contemporary accounts were exaggerations.

Prevention Antibiotics Health experts recommend antibiotics if you have been exposed to wild rodent fleas during a plague outbreak in animals, or to a possible plague-infected animal.

With his forces disintegrating, Janibeg catapulted plague-infested corpses into the town in an effort to infect his enemies. Medical personnel and caregivers must take strict precautions to avoid getting or spreading plague. Some historians believe that society subsequently became more violent as the mass mortality rate cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecution.

These new species of carriers have allowed plague to become endemic in many rural areas, including the western U. Ideally, confirmation is through the identification of Y.

Protect your pets from fleas using flea control products. Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic systemusually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis the rat flea. Today, an average of seven new cases of plague are reported each year in the United States, mostly in the rural West.

Blood Lungs Treatment Several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague. Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often near the site of the initial infection bite or scratch Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears Gangrene of the extremities such as toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose.

During this last pandemic, scientists identified the causative agent as a bacterium and determined that plague is spread by infectious flea bites. Numerous references in art, literature and monuments attest to the horrors and devastation of past plague epidemics.

But you can also get septicemic plague from direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone infected with the plague, or if you have another form of plague that spreads to your bloodstream.

Black Death

More than 80 percent of these U. The most authoritative account at the time came from the medical faculty in Paris in a report to the king of France that blamed the heavens, in the form of a conjunction of three planets in that caused a "great pestilence in the air".

Keep your home free from stacks of cluttered firewood or piles of rock, brush, or other debris that could attract rodents. In Italy, the population of Florence was reduced from ,—, inhabitants in down to 50, in Diagnosis Laboratory testing is required in order to diagnose and confirm plague.

People with pneumonic plague must be isolated from other patients. Swollen lymph nodes buboes characteristic of bubonic plague, a fluid sample can be taken from them with a needle.

Plague (Black Death)

Algiers lost 30,—50, inhabitants to it in —, and again in —, and —Bubonic plague is one of three life-threatening diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

Widely known as the disease that caused the "Black Death" of the European Middle Ages, bubonic.

History of the Plague

Plague was the cause of some of the most-devastating epidemics in history. Bubonic plague is the best-known form in popular lore, History.

History of the Plague

Plague is an ancient disease that was described during Classical times as occurring in North Africa and the Middle East. Septicemic plague (Black Death or black plague) symptoms and signs include fever, weakness, abdominal pain, chills, and shock.

Tissue bleeding and death may cause the dying tissues to appear black. Tissue bleeding and death may cause the dying tissues to appear black.

The Plague

Sep 17,  · Watch video · Understanding the Black Death ; Black Plague – God’s Punishment? Flagellants ; The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mids. The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague, a disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that circulates among wild rodents where they live in great numbers and density.

Such an area is called a ‘plague focus’ or a ‘plague reservoir’. The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague, a disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that circulates among wild rodents where they live in great numbers and density.

Such an area is called a ‘plague focus’ or a ‘plague reservoir’.

The history and cause of the bubonic plague
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